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Solid Waste Management
CONVERTING DRY MUNICIPAL
SOLID WASTE INTO
Different activities may generate waste which may be solid or liquid. The quality of both solid and liquid wastes are increasing and if the wastes are disposed in an uncontrolled manner these may cause adverse impact on public health and environment. Hence these wastes need to be managed efficiently so as to safeguard public health and environment. In definitional terms, solid and liquid waste management is the collection, transportation, processing, recycling, treatment and disposal of waste materials.
In order to improve the quality of life of rural population water supply and environmental sanitation need to be improved. Both solid and liquid waste management (SLWM) come under environmental sanitation. SLWM is one of the seven key components of any sanitation initiatives which is rightly emphasized and focused in the Government of India’s flagship programme of Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC).
2.0. Solid Waste Management.
The objective of rural solid waste management is to collect waste at the source of generation, recovery of recyclable materials for recycling, conversion of organic waste to compost and secured disposal of remaining waste.
Solid waste consists of organic and inorganic waste materials produced by households, commercial and institutional establishments that have no-economic value to the owner. The inorganic wastes are of two types:
recyclable and non-recyclable. General characteristic of solid wastes may be as follows:
• Ash/ Earth
• Paper /Cardboard box
• Plastic / PVC/ HDPE
• Rags / Cotton / Cloth
• Hay / Straw /Thermocol
2.2. Generation :
Generation of solid waste in rural areas ranges between 50 gm/cap /day and 250 gm / cap / day as mentioned below:
• Rural (Peri-urban or Urban outgrowth) 150 to 250 gm / cap / day.
• Rural (Remote /Tribal) 50 to 150 gm / cap / day.
2.3 Facets of RSWM
The following are the facets of RSWM
• Household segregation (organic and inorganic: Recyclables / Non recyclables.)
• Household Storage (In plastic containers)
• Containerized collection (House to house)
• Transportation (Pedal Tricycle / Handcart / other types)
• Transfer or recyclables / recycling
• Treatment and disposal.
2.4 Recycling of waste
Inorganic recyclable solid wastes are to be collected separately from residential houses through sensitization and motivation. Recyclable items would be sold to generate fund. Even some items could be recycled in the village through motivated self-help group i.e. recycling of paper to develop home decorative items. It has been estimated that Rs.1/- per person per month could be generated by selling the recyclable materials.
2.5 Conversion of organic waste to compost.
Composting is one of the options for treatment of solid waste. In composting process, the organic matter breaks down under bacterial action resulting in the formation of humas like material called compost. The process can be carried out aerobically or an-aerobically. Aerobic process is quicker and accordingly it is preferred.
Following are salient issues of windrow method of composting.
• Aerobic process; to keep moisture content between 45 and 50%; regular fitting (every 6th days).
• Average time requirement : 21 days.
• Maturation time : 15 days (max).
• Average Compost production : 50% or raw input
• Pathogen free due to rise in temperature in windrows.
• Aesthetically acceptable.
• Average NPK: 3% of compost.
• Average Application rate : 4MT/ha.
• Affordable to farmers
• Decentralised small plants preferred
• Subsidy, if necessary, to be considered.
• Environmental cost consideration.
2.5.1. Household level composting
• Anaerobic process
• At each household two manure pit / trench should be dug.
• The size of the pit / trench will depend on the quantity of refuse to be disposed per day.
• Each day the garbage, cattle dung, straw, plant and agricultural waste are placed in the pit / trench.
• When the pit / trench is filled up, it is closed with earth cover.
• Everyday after disposal of waste in pit / trench, little dry earth is to be spread to prevent fly breeding and also odour problem.
• In 5-6 months time, the waste is converted into organic manure.
• Sale value of compost Rs.2000/- per MT i.e. Rs.44/cap/yr.
2.5.2. Vermi Composting.
• Vermi composting involves the stabilization of organic solid waste through earth worm consumption which converts the material into worm castings.
• Vermi composting is the results of combine activity of micro organism and earthworms.
• Vermi compost unit can be developed at household level. It may require only 2 sq.meter area per family.
• Vermi composting unit can be developed at community level.
• Easy to operate and maintained.
3.0 Secured Land filling.
The non-recyclable inorganic waste could be disposed by secured land filling operation. The salient components of disposal of solid waste in secured land fill site are as follows:
• Filling of law yield land
• No risk of ground water and surface water pollution.
• Compaction of fill
• Earth cover after filling
• Land reclamation
• Landscape development
• Use of land for horticulture , playground, recreational park etc.