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Plastic Ptyrolysis Plant

Plastic Ptyrolysis Plant
Product Code : Pyrolysis Plant
Brand Name : POLYCATE
Product Description


Plastics Waste Disposal through Pyrolysis Technology (PT)

Pyrolysis Technology (PT) - An Introduction

Pyrolysis is a state of the art technology, which integrates the

thermo-chemical properties of plasma with the pyrolysis process. The

intense and versatile heat generation capabilities of Pyrolysis

technology enable it to dispose of all types of plastic waste including

polymeric, biomedical and hazardous waste in a safe and reliable

manner. Pyrolysis is the thermal disintegration of carbonaceous

material in oxygen-starved atmosphere. When optimized, the most

likely compounds formed are methane, carbon monoxide, hydrogen

carbon dioxide and water molecules.

Principle involved

All plastics are polymers mostly containing carbon and hydrogen and few other elements like chlorine, nitrogen etc. polymers are made up of small molecules called as monomers which combine and form single large molecule called polymer. When this long chain of monomers breaks at certain points or when lower molecular weight fractions are formed this is termed as degradation of polymer. This is reverse of polymerization. If such scission of bonds occurs randomly it is called as Random De-Polymerization’.

In the process of conversion of waste plastic into fuels random De-Polymerization is carried out in a specially designed Reactor in absence of oxygen & in the presence of coal and certain catalytic additive. The maximum reaction temperature is 550°C. There is Total conversion of waste plastic into value added fuel products.

Environment Related Observations

�� There are no liquid industrial effluents and no floor washing as waste

material is not washed.

�� There is no organized stack and process emissions are let out.

�� Odour of volatile organics has been experienced in the processing area

due to some leakages or lack of proper sealing

�� Since, absolute conversion of liquid-vapor was possible into liquid,

some portion of gas (about 20%) is connected to the generator.

However, the process will be improved in full scale plant.

�� PVC plastics waste is not used and if used, it was less than 1%. In

case PVC is used, the chlorine can be converted into hydrochloric

acid as a by-product.

�� The charcoal (Charcoal is formed due to tapping of tarry waste)

generated during the process has been analysed and contain heavy

metals, poly aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) which appears to be

hazardous in nature. The source of metals in charcoal could be due to

presence of additives in plastics and multilayer & laminated


�� Monitoring of process fugitive emissions in the work area as well as

emissions from the engines/diesel generator sets, where this liquid fuel

is used, for various parameters such as CO, HCl, Styrene, Benzene,

VOCs is necessarily required.

Liquid Fuel Production

Scope of liquid fuel in this compendium

Liquid fuel within this compendium is defined as plastic-derived liquid hydrocarbons at a

normal temperature and pressure. Only several types of thermoplastics undergo thermal

decomposition to yield liquid hydrocarbons used as liquid fuel. PE, PP, and PS, are preferred for the

feedstock of the production of liquid hydrocarbons. The addition of thermosetting plastics, wood,

and paper to feedstock leads to the formation of carbonous substance. It lowers the rate and yields

of liquid products.

Depending on the components of the waste plastic being used as feedstock for fuel production,

the resulting liquid fuel may contain other contaminants such as amines, waxy

hydrocarbons and some inorganic substances. Contamination of nitrogen, sulfur and halogens gives

flu gas pollution. Unexpected contamination and high water contents may lower the product yields

and shorten the lifetime of a reactor for pyrolysis

Liquid fuel users require petroleum substitutes such as gasoline, diesel fuel and heavy oil. In

these fuels, various additives are often mixed with the liquid hydrocarbons to improve the burner or

the engine performance. The fuel properties such as viscosity and ash content should conform to the

specifications of the fuel user’s burners or engines. No additives would be needed for fuel used in a

boiler. A JIS technical specification was proposed for pyrolytic oil generated from waste plastic for

use as boiler and diesel generator fuel (TS Z 0025:2004).

Skillful operators and a well-equipped facility are required due to the formation of highly

flammable liquids and gases.

Production method

The production method for the conversion of plastics to liquid fuel is based on the pyrolysis of

the plastics and the condensation of the resulting hydrocarbons. Pyrolysis refers to the thermal

decomposition of the matter under an inert gas like nitrogen.

For the production process of liquid fuel, the plastics that are suitable for the conversion are

introduced into a reactor where they will decompose at 450 to 550 C. Depending on the pyrolysis

conditions and the type of plastic used, carbonous matter gradually develops as a deposit on the

inner surface of the reactor. After pyrolysis, this deposit should be removed from the reactor in

order to maintain the heat conduction efficiency of the reactor.

The resulting oil (mixture of liquid hydrocarbons) is continuously distilled once the waste plastics inside the reactor are decomposed enough to evaporate upon reaching the reaction

temperature. The evaporated oil is further cracked with a catalyst. The boiling point of the produced

oil is controlled by the operation conditions of the reactor, the cracker and the condenser. In some

cases, distillation equipment is installed to perform fractional distillation to meet the user’s


After the resulting hydrocarbons are distilled from the reactor, some hydrocarbons with high

boiling points such as diesel, kerosene and gasoline are condensed in a water-cooled condenser. The

liquid hydrocarbons are then collected in a storage tank through a receiver tank. Gaseous

hydrocarbons such as methane, ethane, propylene and butanes cannot be condensed and are

therefore incinerated in a flare stack. This flare stack is required when the volume of the exhaust

gas emitted from the reactor is expected to be large.

There may be variations in the feeding methods used depending on the characteristics of the

waste plastic. The easiest way is to simply introduce the waste plastics into the reactor without any

pretreatment. Soft plastics such as films and bags are often treated with a shredder and a melter (hot

melt extruder) in order to feed them into the reactor because otherwise they would occupy a large

volume of the reactor.

There are also different types of reactors and heating equipment. Both kiln-type and

screw-type reactors have been proposed, while induction heating by electric power has been

developed as an alternative to using a burner.

Due to the formation of carbonous matter in the reactor, which acts as a heat insulator, in

some tank reactors the stirrer is used to remove the carbonous matter rather than for stirring. After

the liquid product of the pyrolysis is distilled, the carbonous matter is taken out either with a

vacuum cleaner or in some cases reactors are equipped with a screw conveyor at the bottom of the

tank reactor to remove the carbonous matter.

Operators should understand the relationship between the amount and composition of the

waste plastics as well as the operating conditions. Energy consumption and plant costs relative to

the plastic treatment capacity are the typical criteria for evaluating the plant performance. Operating

skill and safety considerations are important in this type of chemical conversion due to the highly

flammable liquid fuels which are formed.

Schematic diagram of fuel oil production system

Fuel / Energy Shortage

On the other hand, our country faces the critical problem of fuel and energy deficiency. The fast depletion of petroleum reserves in the world and frequent rise in prices of crude oil affect our economy adversely. India is not self sufficient in case of petroleum and crude oil. The national production capacity is capable of fulfilling not even 20% of the total fuel demand. The remaining whooping 80% is fulfilled by importing crude. Most of our precious foreign exchange is spent on importing crude.

Case Study:

Calculation of oil consumption

Crude Oil Consumption in India




Crude Imported




Waste plastic generated in India




(excluding almost equal amount of




Imported waste dumped in India




Liquid Hydrocarbons obtained in the invented process




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